Australians enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world. This includes ample, affordable and healthy food - which contributes not only to our enjoyment and lifestyle, but also to our daily well-being, and even our longevity. Seafood, as everyone knows, plays an important part in a healthy diet. In fact, the unique nutrients and oils (such as Omega 3) in seafood play a more significant role than most. Regular seafood consumption is now positively linked to a reduction in heart disease (the major cause of death in Australia); to improvements in many other diseases such as asthma and arthritis; and to improved neural development (even greater intelligence) in children.
With this knowledge, and a growing appreciation of its many culinary delights, our consumption of seafood has grown considerably - from about nine kilograms per person each year in the 1950s, to about 14.5 kilograms per person each year in 2017.
During that time, Australia's population has risen from nine million to over 24 million people. That's a huge increase in the demand for seafood.
Not surprisingly, this has put a huge strain on our natural (wild) fisheries resources. In the 1970s, production of seafood from Australian waters peaked at about 250,000 tonnes per annum, but was simply not sustainable at that level. The depletion of some fish stocks, and the potential for long-term damage from over-fishing, has forced significant reductions in effort in the past 30 years, towards more sustainable catches.
In 20016/17, Australia's fisheries production had fallen to 166,000 tonnes per annum.
Catch constraints are not the only problem facing Australian fishers. High costs (eg. large modern boats, fuel, resource management fees,) means much of our seafood has to be sold to high-priced export markets such as China, to be economically viable. Australia currently exports about 51,000 tonnes of our best seafood, every year.
The future supply of fish for our diet - for Australians and for most of the world - relies on aquaculture (fish farming).
Australia's aquaculture industries, whilst showing great promise, currently produces about 97,000 tonnes per annum. However, the cost of production is also a major constraint. Investment in fish farms, and the cost of rearing and feeding fish (often for several years until they reach market size) means farmers must choose high value species – many of which are aimed at export markets (eg. tuna).
So with a natural shortfall in supply to start with, and a necessity to export what we catch and grow, there is a huge shortfall in meeting our own domestic market requirements.
Even back in the 1950s, Australia needed to import almost as much fish as it produced to keep up with demand. So Australians have been consuming imported fish for well over 50 years.
In 2019, we will need to import at least 220,000 tonnes of seafood (in edible weight form - worth almost 2 billion dollars) to maintain our current per capita consumption level and provide an affordable and healthy diet for everyone.
To meet the seafood consumption levels recommended by the NHMRC we would need a further 300,000 tonnes of seafood per year.